Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl .

Common Name: Guaco
English Name: Guaco, hempvine
Scientific Name: Mikania guaco Humb. & Bonpl .
Family: Asteraceae

Large, hollow vine. Leaves: obovate with acuminate apex, cuneate base at the petioles, petioles 3 to 5 cm long, irregular margins.

Uses: Used against snake bites and herpes

Preparation: In the case of snake bites, count up from the base of the plant 7 leaves, then, at that place on the vine collect 3 or 4 for a bite from a large snake, and collect 7 or 9 leaves for a bite from a small snake. Cook the leaves with garlic in 1 L of water and drink a glass two times a day. Induces sweating and vomiting. For herpes, it is prepared without garlic; drink a cup three times a day.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Evergreen forests.

Notes: Leaves from this plant are collected as the afternoon comes to and end.

Siparuna spp.

Common Name: Limoncillo
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Siparuna spp.
Family: Monimiaceae

Aromatic bush, 3 m tall. Leaves: simple, opposite, serrated margins, pubescent on upper and lower surface. Fruit: fleshy and red, grow all over the plant (similar to the cocoa fruit growth, cauliform), open sporadically when ripe. Seeds: black.

Uses: The fruit contain a substance used to reawaken and stimulate the senses to overcome drowsiness. The fruit is also used to treat sore throats.

Preparation: Prepare a tea with the fruits, take with honey. Adults drink a half cup, three times a day. Children should take 2 Tbls per day.

Part used: Fruit

Habitat: Secondary or disturbed forests

Notes: Collected in the morning (6:00am – 12:00 pm).

Monnina xalapensis Kunth.

Common Name: Pica
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Monnina xalapensis Kunth
Family: Polygalaceae

Shrub, 2 m tall, with hollow branches. Leaves : alternate, elliptic, and oblanceolate, cuneate base, acuminate apex, sparse presence of tricomes. Inflorescence: simple, terminal, usually 1 or 2 axillary inflorescences at the base, blue or blue-purple external color.

Uses: Used for skin problems, such as scabies, mange, and rashes

Preparation: Boil ¼ Kg of clippings in salt water, and add two limes. Then, wash the affected area with the water

Part used: Leaf clippings

Habitat: Disturbed areas along trails or at the forest’s edge

Notes: Collected during the new moon, in the morning or afternoon (between 6 am and 6 pm).

Salvia costarcensis Oerst.

Common Name: Hierba de corazón
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Salvia costarcensis Oerst
Family: Apiaceae

Annual plant. Leaves: opposite, triangular lanceolate, serrate margin. Inflorescence: paniculate

Uses: For heart arrhythmias

Preparation: Cook ¼ Kg of the leaves in 1 L of water. Drink half a cup in the morning and at night.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Found on the forest floor and open areas with partial shade.g.

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the morning.

Dioscorea spp.

Common Name: Zarzon
English Name: Yam
Scientific Name: Dioscorea spp.
Family: Dioscoriaceae

Climbing vine with rhizome. Leaves: opposite; venation of 7-10 convergent, parallel veins and numerous cross veins. Inflorescence : axillary

Uses: For stomach problems, purifying the blood, and re-hydrating the body

Preparation: Chop finely ½ kilo of the root and let is soak. Cook in 2 L of water. Drink two cups, twice a day.

Part used: Root

Habitat: Frequently found in disturbed areas

Notes: Lunar plantm, collected in the afternoon.

Dichorisandra hexandra (Aubul.) Standl.

Common Name: Bara Bara
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Dichorisandra hexandra (Aubul.) Standl.
Family: Commelinaceae

Perennial plant, 1-3 m tall, thick stem. Leaves: oblong elliptic to lanceolate elliptic. Inflorescence: paniculate raceme, sheltered by a linear bract, blue-purple flowers.

Uses: To relieve problems associated with mouth and tongue blisters. Also used as a natural dye.

Preparation: Smash a handful of the fruit to extract their liquid. Pass the liquid through a sieve and apply it directly to the affected area. It’s used on newborn babies that have white discoloration on their tongue.

Part used: Fruit

Habitat: Humid, open areas

Notes: Collected in the afternoon and prepared during the waning quarter moon.

Arthrostemma alatum Triana.

Common Name: Caña agria de mujer
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Arthrostemma alatum Triana.
Family: Melastomataceae

Annual plant, 50 cm tall, with cuadrangular stems. Leaves: opposite, triple nerve venation. The whole plant has a citrus flavor.

Uses: For kidney problems, and menstrual pain

Preparation: Cook ½ Kg of the plant and grind in 1L water. Drink three cups per day. For the kidneys, combine ½ K of this plant with ¼ Lb of corn silk and ¼ Lb pasiflora biflora.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found in open areas, along trails and the edge of forests.

Notes: Collected during the new moon.

Polygala paniculata L.

Common Name: Pachalagua
English Name: Island snake-root
Scientific Name: Polygala paniculata L.
Family: Poligalaceae

Annual plant, 10 cm tall, abundantly ramified, with narrow leaves. Inflorescence: purple flowers in terminal racemes. Characterized by roots having a strong menthol aroma.

Uses: For colds, sore throat, sore eyes, and to kill intestinal parasites.

Preparation: For a sore throat, chop and crush ¼ Kg of the root, soak it in 4 oz of alcohol, and take one tablespoon of this tincture in one cup of water. For a cold, massage alcohol extract into chest, and mix the extract in a pot of hot water in order to do inhalations. For sore eyes, crush the root and use the liquid extracted directly in the eyes.

Part used: Root

Habitat: Open areas.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected during the waxing quarter moon. The plant is only found in July and August.

Mikania spp.

Common Name: Serpentilla
English Name: Mikania vine, guaco, mile a minute
Scientific Name: Mikania spp.
Family: Asteraceae

Climbing vine. Leaves: opposite, triple palmate venation, very dentate margins.

Uses: For bleeding cuts, non-venomous snake bites, and inflamed varicose veins.

Preparation: For external bleeding, place the underside of the leaf on the injury. For snake bites and inflammation, take ¼ K of crushed leaves, and apply to the bite or inflamed area.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Can be found in secondary forest

Notes: Lunar plant; collected at night.

Renealmia cernua Sw.

Common Name: Monkada
English Name: Renealmia
Scientific Name: Renealmia cernua Sw.
Family: Zingiberaceae

Renealmia cernua Sw.

Common Name: Monkada English Name: Renealmia Scientific Name: Renealmia cernua Sw. Family: Zingiberaceae Plant, 1-2 m tall. Leaves: elliptic, up to 30 cm long, acuminate apex, cuneate base and slightly rounded, glabrous. Inflorescence: terminal spike, red. Characterized by the cinnamon aroma of the crushed leaves. Uses: For liver cancer.

Preparation: Collect the roots and flowers of 5 or 6 plants, and cook them together in 2 L of water. Drink one cup before breakfast for one month.

Part used: Roots and flowers

Habitat: Humid areas, also observed on slopes beneath trees.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected during the full moon.

Zanthoxylum caribeum Lam.

Common Name: Prickly yellow
English Name: Lagartillo negro
Scientific Name: Zanthoxylum caribeum Lam.
Family: Rutaceae

Tree, 7 m tall. Trunk and branches with short spines from cushion-like base. Leaves: imparipinnate, glabrous, with elliptical leaflets, margins crenate, oil dots (glands) visible when backlit. A strong unpleasant odor is release when the leaves are crushed.

Uses: For dental problems, itchy skin, and to control head lice.

Preparation: Boil 1/2 Kg of the bark in 1 L of water. Swash in mouth for dental problems. For itchiness or lice, wash the affected area with the water. Do not ingest, this plant contains toxins.

Part used: Bark

Habitat: Found in secondary forests

Notes: Collected during the waning quarter phase of the moon and is applied during the waxing phase of the moon.

Begonia spp.

Common Name: Diug
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Begonia spp.
Family: Begoniaceae

Plant, 30 cm tall. Leaves: asymmetrical, palmate venation, slightly dentate margin.

Uses: For liver problems.

Preparation: The whole plant is used, crush the leaves well. Cook in ½ L of water and drink three times a day.

Part used: Whole plant.

Habitat: Humid, shady areas.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected in the afternoon.

Spananthe paniculata Jacq.

Common Name: Burbuja or Buba

English Name: Not identified

Scientific Name: Spananthe paniculata Jacq.

Family: Apiaceae

Annual plant, about 1 m tall. Leaves: simple, opposite, triangular lanceolate, with truncate to cordate base, hairs are also present. Inflorescence: umbellate, white and yellow.

Uses: For problems associated with burns, such as blistering; mouth sores; irritated eyes

Preparation: Boil ½ Kg of leaves in 1 L of water, and let cool. Apply the liquid to the affected area. Use a dropper to apply to the eyes, and use as a mouthwash for cold sores.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Open areas or in cultivated areas.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected between 7 and 8 pm.

Selaginella spp.

Common Name: Doradilla
English Name: Spikemoss, selaginella
Scientific Name: Selaginella spp.
Family: Selaginellaceae

Low growing plant, similar to a fern, growing superficially on soil or surfaces. Light green, with an almost artificial appearance.

Uses: Helps the production of white blood cells.

Preparation: Prepare 1/2 Kg of the plant in 1 L of water. Drink on cup of the liquid in the morning before eating, everyday for one month.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found in under story of forests with high levels of organic material and humidity.

Notes: Collected in the afternoon during the new moon .

Justicia tinctoria (Oerst.) D. N. Gibson.

Common Name: Azul de mata
English Name: Blue bush
Scientific Name: Justicia tinctoria (Oerst.) D. N. Gibson.
Family: Acanthaceae

Bush, up to 3 meters tall. Leaves: lanceolate, opposite. Inflorescence: terminal spikes, red at the base and yellow at the tip. Branches with nodes.

Uses: Reduces inflammation and varicose veins, controls head lice, and used as a natural blue dye.

Preparation: Boil 1/2 Lb of the leaves and apply to affected areas.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Often found in open areas and in shady areas.

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the morning.

Curcuma domestica Lour.

Common Name: Yuquilla
English Name: Turmeric
Scientific Name: Curcuma domestica Lour.
Family: Zingiberaceae

Plant, about 1 meter high, subterranean stem. Rhizome branched. Leaves: large (1 m), soft, light green, strong central nerve. Inflorescence extends from between the petioles, noticeable due to the presence of bracts.

Uses: For skin problems such as, rashes due to fungus and athlete’s foot, also used as a natural dye.

Preparation: Shred 1/2 Kg of the root and boil in 2 -3 L of water, and apply externally.

Part used: Root

Habitat: Humid areas.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected in the afternoon one day and used the next day.

Tagetes filifolia Lag.

Common Name: Anisillo
English Name: Irish lace
Scientific Name: Tagetes filifolia Lag
Family: Asteraceae

Plant, 30 cm tall. Characterized by having leaves that are opposite on some parts of the plant and alternate on other parts of the same plant; linear leaves, similar to pine needles. Roots fibrous. The whole plant has a pleasant liquorish smell

Uses: For prostate problems and difficulties associated with urination

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the plant in 1 L of water. Drink one cup two times a day.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Disturbed areas and along roadsides, in soils that are degraded and with high clay content.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected during the waxing crescent moon, never during the full moon, because at that time the plant secretes a liquid that is toxic to humans.

Lobelia laxiflora Kunth.

Common Name: Valeriana
English Name: Lobelia, mexican lobelia, bellflower
Scientific Name: Lobelia laxiflora Kunth
Family: Campanulaceae

Plant, 1.5 m tall. Leaves: alternate, serrated margin, very pubescent. Inflorescence: terminal racemes, orange. White sap

Uses: For skin problems such as fungal infections, rashes, and athlete’s foot. Toxic; should not be ingested; for external use only.

Preparation: Mash 5 plants together which have had the roots removed. Soak in room-temperature water for several hours, and apply directly to the affected area.

Habitat: Found in disturbed areas and highly degraded soils.

Notes: This is a solar plant; collected in the morning in order to obtain the most affective properties of the plant.

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Common Name: Diente de León
English Name: Common sowthistle, smooth sow thistle
Scientific Name: Sonchus oleraceus L.
Family: Asteraceae

Plant, 15 cm tall. Leaves: rosette formations 12 cm long, serrate margin. Inflorescence: yellow, hollow scape. White sap.

Uses: Control cholesterol and sugar levels of the blood

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the leaves in one L of water. Drink a 1/2 cup, three times per day.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Often found along roadsides, and in rocky and hard degraded soils.

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the morning during the waning crescent moon.

Crotalaria spp.

Common Name: Alacrancillo
English Name: Rattlebox, rattleweed, crotolaria
Scientific Name: Crotalaria spp.
Family: Papilionaceae

Hierba, 40 cm tall. Stems: alate, cuadrangular, ribbed. Inflorescence: yellow. Fruit: pod with many black seeds.

Uses: For herpes, fevers, and nausea

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the plant in one bottle of water. Drink one cup every night.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found along roadsides, in very rocky soils or soils high in clay.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected at sunset during the new moon.

Chelonanthus alatus (Aubl.) Puelle, Enum.

Common Name: Bulba
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Chelonanthus alatus (Aubl.) Puelle, Enum.
Family: Gentianaceae

Plant, 1.5 m tall. Leaves: simple, opposite, oval. Stem conspicuously caudrangular. Inflorescence: terminal, dichasiual, corollas campanulate and dentate.

Uses: Relieves skin irritation

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the open flowers in 1 L of water, and apply to the affected areas.

Part used: Flowers

Habitat: Found in open areas and areas with partial shade, in degraded soils

Notes: Lunar plant; collected during the full moon before midnight.

Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

Common Name: Uña de gato
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
Family: Mimosaceae

Plant, about 50 cm tall. Leaves: compound, paripinnate, two pairs of leaflets. One of the characteristics of the plant is that in the first pair of leaflets, one of them is reduced. The presence of thorns in the shaped of cat’s claws gave the plant its name.

Uses: For gastric cancer

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the root in 1 L of water. Drink 1/2 cup, three times a day

Part used: Root

Habitat: Found in open areas and along roadsides

Notes: Solar plant; collected from the mountain during the waxing crescent moon.

Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau.

Common Name: Canutillo
English Name: Brazilian red-cloak, red justicia
Scientific Name: Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau.
Family: Acanthaceae

Shrub, 4 m. tall. Stem: cuadrangular appearance, swollen nodes. Leaves: opposite, elliptical, margins entire. Inflorescence: terminal, up to 20 cm long, red bracts and white flower. Very popular ornamental plant throughout Costa Rica.

Uses: For skin cancer.

Preparation: Boil four inflorescence with 1/4 Kg of bee pollen in 2 L of water. Drink three times a day. The flowers should be collected in the mornings and afternoons, before the hummingbirds drink their nectar.

Part used: Flowers

Habitat: Found in open areas in the shade

Notes: Lunar plant; collected during the waxing crescent moon.

Conyza spp.

Common Name: Junco

English Name: Horseweed, fleabanes

Scientific Name: Conyza spp.

Family: Asteraceae

Plant, 1 m. tall. Leaves: alternate, serrate. Stem: pubescent, channeled length-wise. Inflorescence: terminal, yellow.

Uses: To lose weight

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the plant in 1 L of water. Take swallows throughout the day.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found in abandoned areas, open areas, along roadsides, and on mountain slopes.

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the morning, during the waning crescent moon.

Onoseris silvatica.

Common Name: Mapola
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Onoseris silvatica
Family: Asteraceae

Plant, 30 cm tall. Leaves: alternate, evidently lanceolate, serrate and irregular margin, five veins extend from leaf base, petioles up to 19 cm long; characterized by white, downy pubescence on underside of leaves. Inflorescence: yellow or red.

Uses: To stimulate, relax, and fortify

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the plant in separate containers of 1 L of water, and sweeten with honey.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found along roadsides in degraded areas.

Notes: Lunar plant. Collect after midnight during the full moon.

Capparis heydeana Donn Sm

Common Name: Huevo de chancho
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Capparis heydeana Donn. Sm
Family: Capparidaceae

Tree, 6 m tall. Leaves: grouped at the end of the branch, alternate, helicoid, obovate, stipules, petioles bitumid and unequal. Fruit: green with brownish tone, mango shaped, very evident stipe. This plant may be confused with Capparis frondosa due to similar vegetative characteristics, but the fruits are distinct; the fruit of Capparis heydeana is smaller and more elongate.

Uses: For leukemia

Preparation: Boil 1/2 Kg of the leaves and bark in 1 L of water, and drink three times a day. Also, boil 6 ripe fruit, which are blackish inside, in 1 L of water, and take swallows throughout the day.

Part used: Leaves, fruit, and bark

Habitat: Found in the lower canopy, in shady environments. Fruits are abundant in September. Natural regeneration of this species is limited, possibly due to mammals that feed on the fruit (or saplings).

Notes: This is a preventative plant. Collected at nightfall during the waxing crescent moon.

Clidemia spp.

Common Name: Ukat

English Name: Not identified

Scientific Name: Clidemia spp.

Family: Melastomataceae

Plant, 50 cm tall. Leaves: opposite, very pubescent, serrate margin, 9 veins extending from the leaf base. Inflorescence: axillary. Fruit: bright purple. The whole plant is pubescent with simple tricomes.

Uses: For hemorrhages at the skin

Preparation: Boil 1/2 Kg of the leaves in 1 L of water. Apply the liquid externally. This plant may also be drunk in the morning before eating; this method is mostly used by women who will be giving birth soon.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Found in open areas, in disturbed soils

Notes: Lunar plant; collected in the morning during the full moon.

Crotalaria vitellina Ker Gawl.

Common Name: Quiebra plato
English Name: Rattlebox
Scientific Name: Crotalaria vitellina Ker Gawl.
Family: Papilionaceae

Plant, 40 cm tall. Leaves: alternate, tri-foliolate, lanceolate leaflets, light green, underside glaucous, filiform stipule. Inflorescence: terminal racemes, but as the plant grows they become opposite, yellow. This species of Crotalaria is easily distinguished by its tri-foliolate leaves.

Uses: gall stones

Preparation: Boil several ¼ Kg of the roots in 1 L of water. Drink a cup, two times a day.

Part used: Root

Habitat: Found in disturbed areas and along roadsides

Notes: Solar plant; collected after mid-day during the waning moon.

Senna reticulata (Willd.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby

Common Name: Saragundi
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Senna reticulata (Willd.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby
Family: Caesalpinaceae

Tree, 7 m tall. Leaves: alternate, compound, terminal pairs, oblong leaflets. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, sepals and petals bright yellow

Uses: For nervousness and anemia

Preparation: Make a tea of two small leaves in one glass of water, and add milk to the tea. Drink three times a day.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: This is very abundant in areas with poor drainage, as well as in well-drained areas. It grows in open areas with direct light.

Notes: This is a preventative plant. Lunar plant, collected in the afternoon of the new moon.

Aristolochia spp.

Common Name:
English Name: Dutchman’s pipe, pipe vine
Scientific Name: Aristolochia spp
Family: Aristolochiaceae

Vine. Leaves: alternative, 3 veins extending from the base. Bark: fissured, cork-like texture.

Uses: Purgative, relieves diarrhea, fevers, and snake bite wounds.

Preparation: Use 3 small section lengths of the vine. Cook in 1 L of water. Drink 1/2 cup three times a day.

Part used: Vine

Habitat: This species of Aristolochia is found in secondary forests or zones with little disturbance

Notes: Solar plant; collected at night during the waxing crescent moon.

Buddleja americana L.

Common Name: Salvia castilla
English Name: Butterfly bush
Scientific Name: Buddleja americana L
Family: Loganiaceae

Shrub, about 2 m tall. Leaves: opposite, lanceolate, pubescent, dentate margin. Inflorescence: terminal, yellow.

Uses: Relieves nervousness, inflammation of the ovaries, and vomiting.

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the leaves in 1 L of water. Drink 1/2 cup two times a day.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Grows in open areas

Notes: Lunar plant; collected at night during the full moon.

Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston.

Common Name: Manazana rosa
English Name: Rose apple
Scientific Name: Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston
Family: Myrtaceae

Tree, up to 20 m tall. Leaves: opposite, lanceolate, translucid oil dots (glands) visible when backlit, glabrous. Inflorescence: in racemes, white with yellowish tones. Fruit: round, yellow.

Uses: For controlling the menstrual cycle, treats illness associated with the spleen, reduces inflammation of the ovaries.

Preparation: Collect 1/4 Kg of the young branch tips, and boil in 1 L. of water. Drink 1/2 cup four times a day.

Part used: Young branch tips

Habitat: Grows in open zones and under shade.

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the morning.

Trichillia havanensis Jacq.

Common Name: Uruca
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Trichillia havanensis Jacq.
Family: Meliaceae

Tree. Height: approximately 9 meters. Leaves: compound, alternate, imparippinate, 5-10 leaflets, opposite, oblong lanceolate, rachis slightly alate. Inflorecnese: axillary. Fruit: ovoid, green. One characteristic of this plant family is that the first pair of leaflets is reduced.

Uses: For headaches and migraines

Preparation: Boil 1/2 kg of the leaves and do inhalations at night. Or, burn the dried plant and inhale the smoke.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Grows commonly in many areas and is frequently used as a garden plant

Notes: This plant is scared in rituals, used as an incense. For use as incense, the plant is collected on Good Friday. It is a solar plant, collected during the full moon.

Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash

Common Name: Zacate violeta
English Name: Vetiver
Scientific Name: Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash
Family: Poaceae

Plant, 1.5 m tall, forms tight bunches. Stems: cylindrical and straight. Leaves: solitary, one lamina, tough, smooth edges that may cut the skin.

Uses: Moth repellant, and for diabetes

Preparation: Boil ¼ Kg of the root in 1 L of water. Drink 1/2 cup three times per day.

Part used: Root

Habitat: This grass species adapts to a wide variety of habitats. It is found in open areas and in the shade, in poor soils and even in soils with high freatic levels.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected during the waning crescent moon.

Quassia amara L.

Common Name: Hombre grande
English Name: Bitterwood, bitter ash, bitter man, amargo, quassia
Scientific Name: Quassia amara L.
Family: Simaroubaceae

Shrub, 4 m tall. Leaves: simple, alternate, imparippinate, rachis alate, 5 to 7 leaflets. Inflorescence: raceme-like cyme, pinkish-red sepals and petals. Fruit: green drupes that turn red and then black when ripe. Easily recognized by a bitter flavor in every part of the plant.

Uses: Helps stomach problems, reduces the appearance of blemishes on the skin, it’s also used as a herbiced.

Preparation: Boil a small piece of the wood, or leave pieces of the wood in water at room temperature. Drink 1 Tbls three times a day. For an herbicide, place 10 Kg of the woody bark in half a tank (the size of a garbage can), and let is soak for one week before application. For skin blemishes, let 5 small pieces of the bark and 7 garlic cloves soak in water for one week, and then apply to the affected area.

Part used: Wood

Habitat: Under partial shade, in secondary forests, and areas with good drainage. This species is adapted well for agroforesty.

Notes: Solar plant; collected at night during the full moon.

Ageratum conyzoides L.

Common Name: Santa Lucia
English Name: Goat weed
Scientific Name: Ageratum conyzoides L.
Family: Asteraceae

Annual plant, 40 cm tall. Leaves: opposite, pubescent, serrated margin, three veins extending from the base of the petiole. Inflorescence: compound, purple.

Uses: For cataracts, and for areas with inflammation; it is also popularly used in a ceremony to bring success in life.

Preparation: Boil 3 ounces of the root in 1 cup of water. Let it cool. Apply directly to the eyes or inflamed area.

Part used: Root

Habitat: Found in disturbed areas. Produces most of its blooms in December.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected in the afternoon during the full moon.

Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken

Common Name: Laurel negro
English Name: Laurel, forest laurel, forest timber
Scientific Name: Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken
Family: Boraginaceae

Tree. Height: up to 20 meters. Leaves: alternate, grouped at the end of the branch, obovate, underside coarse, stellate pubescence on upper surface. Inflorescence: terminal, white. Fruit: ellipsoid.

Uses: Acts as a sedative, especially for children.

Preparation: Boil ¼ Kg of the flowers in 1 L of water. Add honey and drink 1/2 cup, three times a day.

Part used: Flowers

Habitat: Common throughout the country. Often used for reforestation project.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected at 4:00pm.

Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br.

Common Name: Gavilana
English Name: Jackass bitters
Scientific Name: Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br.
Family: Asteraceae

Shrub, just over 2 m tall. Leaves: tri-lobed, alternate. Stems: evidently aristate. Inflorescence: yellow, growing in compact groups at the end of the branches. All parts of plant have bitter taste.

Uses: For intestinal cancer; asthma; aches and pains; and as a stimulant

Preparation: For aches and pains, or for colds or nausea, boil 5 or 6 leaves in one bottle of water, and drink 1 Tbls, three times a day. As a stimulant or energizer, boil 3 ounces of the roots in a bottle of water. Drink 1 Tbls, three times a day.

Part used: Leaves and roots

Habitat: Open areas, more likely in areas with good drainage.

Notes: Lunar plant; collected in the early afternoon during the full moon.

Rubus spp.

      Common Name: Raiz de mora
English Name: Raspberry, bramble
Scientific Name: Rubus spp.
Family: Rosaceae

Spiny shrub. Leaves: trifoliate, alternate, dentate margin. Stems: pubescent. Fruit: drupe.

Uses: For problems with the blood; and inflammation of the intestine

Preparation: Boil ¼ Kg of the root in one bottle of water. Drink 1/2 a cup, three times a day. For inflammation of the intestine, mash ¼ Kg of the fruit, and soak them in a bottle of water; drink ½ cup of the water three times a day.

Part used: Root

Habitat: Open areas or in the shade.

Notes: Solar plant: collected during the new moon.

Prestonia isthmica Woodson

Common Name: Bejuco Cubiertillo, Cacho de Chivo
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Prestonia isthmica Woodson
Family: Apocinácea

Vine, with redish-brown pubescence on the whole plant. White sap. Leaves: opposite, obovate, may be over 10 cm long. Flower: yellow. Fruit: two seedpods that grow in the form of horns, from which its name is derived.

Uses: Stop over-salivation that induces spitting

Preparation: Cook one roll of leaves in 1 L of water. Drink two cups a day and use it as a mouthwash.

Part used: Leaves

Habitat: Found in disturbed areas and in the forest understory

Notes: Lunar plant; collected in the morning of the full moon.

Cordia ferruginea.

Common Name: Barilla de India
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Cordia ferruginea
Family: Boraginaceae

Shrub, 2 m tall. Leaves: simple, alternate, coarse texture, dentate margin. Tends to behave as a vine.

Uses: Source of iron

Preparation: Boil ¼ Kg of the plant in one bottle of water. Children drink 1 Tbls three times a day. Adults drink 1/2 cup three times a day.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found at the edge of wooded areas

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the afternoon of the full moon.

Cissampelos pareira L.

Common Name: Carretillo
English Name: Abuta
Scientific Name: Cissampelos pareira L.
Family: Menispermaceae

Vine. Leaves: alternate, ovoid, pubescent. Inflorescence: racemes. Fruit: spherical, red.

Uses: Relieves inflamed spleen and difficulty in urinating

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the plant in 1 L of water. Drink 2 cups a day.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found in open areas, but it is a vine that adapts well to other environments, such as, non-deciduous forests, riparian forests, and cloud forests.

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the morning during the waning moon.

Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC.

Common Name: Huevo de Indio
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC.
Family: Rubiacaeae

Crawling plant. Leaves: opposite, very pubescent, ovate. Stem: reddish. Flowers: grouped, blue and white with purple spots. Fruits: ovoid, blue or purple

Uses: Helps with respiratory problems; counters impotence or infertility in men and women.

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the whole plant in 1 L of water. Drink one cup of water in the morning on an empty stomach.

Part used: whole plant

Habitat: Found on sloped roadsides

Notes: Lunar plant; collected at nightfall during the new moon.

Dyssodia montana (Benth.) A. Gray

Common Name: Girasolillo
English Name: Not identified
Scientific Name: Dyssodia montana (Benth.) A. Gray
Family: Asteraceae

Plant, less than 1 m tall. Leaves: opposite, dentate margin, a series of glands on the lamina of the leaf. Stem: erect. Inflorescence: terminal, bright red, only blooms during the dry seasons.

Uses: For skin problems, such as scabs and itching, also used to relieve digestive problems.

Preparation: For stomach problems: boil ¼ Kg of the plant in 1 bottle of water. Drink 1/2 cup three times a day. For skin problems: boil the root and apply the liquid to the affected area.

Part used: Roots, and all of above-ground plant

Habitat: Found in land open for grazing, and other areas that receive intense direct sunlight

Notes: Solar plant; collected in the morning during the waxing crescent moon.

Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb.w.

Common Name: Turis

English Name: Not identified

Scientific Name: Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urb. Family: Rhamnaceae

Shrub, over 5 m tall. Tricomes are present throughout the plant. Leaves: alternate, ovate, acuminate apex, crenate margins, venation is more prominent on the underside. Inflorescence: panicle

Uses: Relieves aches and pain, headaches, and colds.

Preparation: Boil 1/4 Kg of the whole plant in 1 L of water. Drink 1/2 cup three times a day.

Part used: whole plant

Habitat: Found in wooded areas and along their borders

Notes: Lunar plant; collected during the waning crescent moon.

Cardiospermum grandiflorum Sw.

Common Name: Barba de Viejo
English Name: Balloon vine
Scientific Name: Cardiospermum grandiflorum Sw.
Family: Sapindaceae

Vine. Leaves: tri-foliate, divided into three parts with different forms and sizes, dentate or serrate margin. Flower: white. Fruit: easily recognized by three swollen sides.

Uses: For skin problems, such as blemishes, Pinta (infection caused by the organism Treponema carateum), scabs, and other injuries.

Preparation: Boil ¼ Kg of the whole plant in 1 L of water. Apply direct to the affected area.

Part used: Whole plant

Habitat: Found in areas that have been disturbed and are in the process of regeneration

Notes: Lunar plant; collected in the morning of the full moon.